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Antidiabetic drugs are pharmaceuticals or chemicals used to manage and treat diabetes mellitus, a chronic metabolic condition marked by high blood glucose levels. Antidiabetic therapy's primary purpose is to manage blood sugar levels and avoid diabetes-related problems. Oral hypoglycemic medicines are one of the most common types of antidiabetic medications. These drugs are administered orally and work in a variety of methods to reduce blood glucose levels. Sulfonylureas boost insulin secretion from the pancreas, while biguanides, such as metformin, inhibit glucose synthesis by the liver. Insulin, a hormone generated by the pancreas, is an important part of diabetes care. Insulin therapy entails injecting insulin into subcutaneous tissue to replace or supplement the body's own insulin. There are several kinds of insulin, each with a specific purpose in controlling blood glucose levels. Incretin-based therapies are another type of antidiabetic medication that targets the incretin system, which is involved in glucose regulation. Incretins increase insulin secretion and block glucagon release, reducing blood sugar levels. This category is divided into two categories: dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are also used as antidiabetic medicines, slowing carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and causing a slower rise in blood glucose levels after meals.Furthermore, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are a recent class of drugs that diminish glucose reabsorption by the kidneys, increasing the elimination of excess glucose in the urine. Antidiabetic therapy is chosen based on a number of factors, including diabetes type, specific patient features, and treatment goals. To achieve optimal glycemic control, healthcare practitioners must personalize treatment programs to each patient's particular needs, as well as monitor and alter medication on an ongoing basis. In addition to medication therapies, lifestyle changes such as food and exercise play an important role in diabetes management.