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Terpenes are a diverse class of organic compounds produced by various plants, fungi, and even some insects. These hydrocarbons, composed of repeating isoprene units, impart distinctive aromas and flavors to a wide array of natural products. Found in the essential oils of plants, terpenes contribute to the scent of flowers, fruits, and herbs, playing a crucial ecological role in attracting pollinators and repelling herbivores. Beyond their olfactory significance, terpenes possess versatile biological functions. They are integral to the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, with many exhibiting potential therapeutic properties. For instance, some terpenes have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, or antioxidant effects. Cannabis, for example, contains a rich profile of terpenes alongside cannabinoids, influencing the plant's unique physiological and psychological effects. Terpenes are not limited to plants; they are also integral components in resin and contribute to the distinctive scents of coniferous trees. The study of terpenes, known as terpenology, delves into their chemical structures, properties, and biological activities, showcasing the wide-ranging impact of these compounds in nature and industry.