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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that predominantly affects cartilage, the protective tissue that surrounds the ends of bones in a joint. It is the most common type of arthritis and is usually caused by aging, joint wear and tear, or a joint injury. While it can affect every joint in the body, osteoarthritis most typically affects the knees, hips, hands, and spine. Osteoarthritis is characterized by the slow deterioration of cartilage, which causes discomfort, swelling, and limited joint motion.Cartilage acts as a cushion and lubricant in the joint, allowing for comfortable and pain-free mobility.As it deteriorates, bones may rub against one another, resulting in discomfort and stiffness. Over time, the damaged joint may lose its original shape, and bone spurs may form. Age, genetics, obesity, joint traumas, and recurrent joint stress all increase the risk of osteoarthritis. Aging adds to the natural degradation of cartilage, and hereditary factors may influence an individual's susceptibility to the condition. Excess body weight puts additional strain on weight-bearing joints including the knees and hips, raising the risk of OA development. Osteoarthritis symptoms usually develop gradually and worsen over time. Common symptoms include discomfort during or after movement, stiffness, edema, and a limited range of motion. Morning stiffness, a typical symptom, may ease with activity throughout the day. A medical history, physical examination, and imaging procedures such as X-rays or MRIs are commonly used to diagnose joint injury. The goal of osteoarthritis treatment is to relieve symptoms, improve joint function, and improve the individual's quality of life. Lifestyle changes such as weight control and exercise, pain and inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, and, in extreme situations, surgical procedures such as joint replacement are all alternatives for treatment. While osteoarthritis is a chronic and progressive disorder, early detection and treatment can dramatically decrease its progression and alleviate symptoms, allowing people to live active and satisfying lives. Regular medical checkups and attention to prescribed medications are critical for effectively controlling osteoarthritis.