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Teratogens are chemicals, agents, or factors that can disrupt the normal development of a fetus while it is growing inside a pregnant woman. These teratogenic substances can interfere with embryonic tissues' proper development and differentiation, which can result in a number of congenital abnormalities. Teratogens can be present in drugs, viral diseases, environmental exposures, and even specific maternal behaviors.The teratogen alcohol is a well-known one. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), a serious illness marked by facial abnormalities, development limitations, central nervous system impairments, and cognitive and behavioral problems, can be brought on by maternal alcohol use during pregnancy. Thalidomide, a drug that was provided to pregnant women in the 1950s and 1960s to treat morning sickness, is another well-known teratogen. Tragically, it was discovered that thalidomide results in limb abnormalities in neonates. Various viral pathogens can also be teratogenic when exposed to them. As an illustration, the Zika virus, which is spread by mosquito bites, has been associated with an increase in occurrences of microcephaly, a disorder where the baby's brain does not grow normally, resulting in a reduced head size and potential neurological abnormalities.Additionally, several contaminants in the environment and chemicals are recognized teratogens. Heavy metal exposure, such as that to lead and mercury, can harm prenatal development and result in physical and mental impairments. Additionally, birth abnormalities have been linked to industrial pollutants, insecticides, and some drugs. Teratogens can also be maternal issues, such as uncontrolled diabetes, smoking, and advanced maternal age. Smoking raises the chance of premature birth and low birth weight, whereas older moms are more likely to have children with genetic abnormalities. Diabetes that is not well controlled might cause birth abnormalities by raising blood sugar levels throughout crucial stages of embryonic development.Teratogens present serious hazards to the growing fetus throughout pregnancy, to sum up. Protecting the health and wellbeing of both mother and child requires an understanding of these possible risks and the implementation of preventative actions. To prevent teratogen exposure and guarantee a healthy and successful pregnancy, pregnant women should speak with medical professionals.