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Retinoids are a class of chemical compounds derived from vitamin A that play crucial roles in various physiological processes, particularly in skin health and vision. These compounds encompass both natural and synthetic forms, including retinol, retinaldehyde, and tretinoin. Renowned for their versatility, retinoids are integral in skincare due to their ability to regulate cell growth and differentiation. In dermatology, they are widely used to address acne, stimulate collagen production, and mitigate the effects of photoaging. Retinoids function by binding to specific receptors, known as retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs), influencing gene expression and cellular activities. This modulation promotes skin renewal and helps alleviate skin conditions. Beyond dermatology, retinoids contribute to maintaining vision by participating in the synthesis of the pigment rhodopsin, which is essential for low-light vision. Despite their efficacy, retinoids may cause skin irritation, emphasizing the importance of gradual introduction in skincare routines. Additionally, pregnant individuals are advised to use retinoids cautiously due to potential risks to fetal development. Overall, the multifaceted impact of retinoids in skincare and physiological processes underscores their significance in medicine and cosmetic science.