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Neuroleptics, another name for antipsychotics, are a class of drugs used mostly to treat the symptoms of psychosis, a mental illness marked by a detachment from reality. These medications have a key role in the treatment of conditions like bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and severe depression with psychotic symptoms. They function by changing the ratio of specific chemicals in the brain, including dopamine, which is important in mood, behavior, and thought processes. Antipsychotics are primarily classified as either typical (first-generation) or atypical (second-generation). The earliest drugs to be produced were called typical antipsychotics, and they include drugs like haloperidol and chlorpromazine. Their main effect is to inhibit dopamine receptors in the brain's dopaminergic pathways, which lessens the symptoms of psychosis. But they can also result in serious side effects like tremors, restlessness, and muscle rigidity known as extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS).The mechanism of action of atypical antipsychotics, which were introduced later, is broader. They have an impact on serotonin receptors in addition to inhibiting dopamine receptors. It is believed that this dual effect helps both the more difficult to treat negative symptoms of psychosis, like social disengagement and motivation deficit, as well as the more positive symptoms like delusions and hallucinations. Risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine are a few examples of atypical antipsychotics. The individual's condition and the side effect profile are generally the deciding factors when selecting between typical and atypical antipsychotics. Atypical antipsychotics are often favored since they have a decreased potential to cause EPS, although they may also have adverse effects like weight gain and metabolic problems. It is essential that those on antipsychotics have constant medical supervision. This observation guarantees the efficacy of the treatment and aids in the management of adverse effects. Usually, doctors start with lesser doses and change them based on the patient's response. Antipsychotics can help people with serious mental illnesses live better lives by enhancing their ability to function in daily life. They do, however, come with hazards, just like other medications, therefore it's critical for patients and their healthcare providers to communicate openly in order to address any worries or modifications to the patient's condition.