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High blood cholesterol levels, or hypercholesterolemia, represent a substantial risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The body needs the waxy chemical cholesterol to create cells and produce certain hormones. But elevated levels, especially of LDL cholesterol (commonly called "bad" cholesterol), can cause plaque to accumulate in the arteries, raising the risk of stroke and heart attack. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) are the two primary forms of cholesterol. Because LDL cholesterol can accumulate in artery walls and produce plaque that narrows and obstructs blood flow, it is regarded as "bad" cholesterol. In contrast, HDL cholesterol is seen as "good" since it aids in the removal of LDL cholesterol from the arteries.Hypercholesterolemia can be acquired through lifestyle factors such obesity, smoking, poor food, lack of exercise, and excessive alcohol consumption, or it can be inherited (familial hypercholesterolemia). Individuals who have familial hypercholesterolemia inherit genes that make their bodies overproduce low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), which results in elevated levels from an early age. Lipid panel blood testing is commonly used to diagnose hypercholesterolemia. Triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol are all measured by this test. Every four to six years, adults over the age of 20 should get their cholesterol evaluated, according to the American Heart Association's recommendation.In order to treat hypercholesterolemia, lifestyle modifications and occasionally medication are required. A heart-healthy diet reduced in cholesterol, trans fats, and saturated fats, as well as regular exercise and weight maintenance, are examples of lifestyle modifications. It may be necessary to administer medications like statins to lower cholesterol and lower the risk of heart disease. Untreated hypercholesterolemia can result in major side effects such atherosclerosis, a condition in which a buildup of plaque restricts blood flow to essential organs. Peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, and even stroke may arise from this. Thus, avoiding these issues and preserving heart health depend heavily on the early identification and treatment of excessive cholesterol.To sum up, hypercholesterolemia is a medical disorder marked by elevated blood cholesterol levels, which presents a noteworthy risk for cardiovascular disease. People can effectively manage their cholesterol levels and lower their risk of heart-related issues by changing their lifestyle and using drugs. Early detection and treatment depend on routine screening and knowledge of risk factors.