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Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a lentivirus that targets the immune system of humans, causing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The virus predominantly targets CD4 T cells, a kind of white blood cell required for the immune system to operate properly. HIV spreads through contact with certain bodily fluids, including blood, sperm, vaginal fluids, rectal fluids, and breast milk. HIV has two primary types: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is the most frequent and pathogenic, whereas HIV-2 is less common and milder. The virus is spread by unprotected sexual contact, sharing contaminated needles or syringes, receiving contaminated blood products or organ transplants, and passing from mother to child during childbirth or breastfeeding. Once within the body, HIV replicates, gradually weakening the immune system. The virus's capacity to evolve and elude the immune system makes it difficult to create a cure. However, antiretroviral medication (ART) has been shown to halt the course of HIV and improve the quality of life for individuals afflicted. HIV infection progresses through three stages: acute, clinical latency, and AIDS. During the acute phase, patients may have flu-like symptoms such as fever, tiredness, and swollen lymph nodes. Clinical latency, also known as the chronic or asymptomatic stage, can endure for years while the virus replicates at a low rate. Without therapy, HIV infection progresses to AIDS, which is defined by severe immune suppression and the development of opportunistic infections or malignancies. Preventive strategies are critical for reducing the spread of HIV. Condom use, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), needle exchange programs, and education about safe practices are all critical components of HIV prevention. Regular testing and early detection are crucial for quick beginning of therapy, which can greatly lengthen and enhance the lives of HIV patients. Despite advances in understanding and managing HIV, more research, public awareness, and worldwide collaboration are required to produce more effective medications, prevention measures, and, ultimately, a cure for this persistent and complicated virus.