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Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

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An enlarged prostate, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is a common medical issue that primarily affects older men. It is characterised by the prostate gland's non-cancerous enlargement, which is an organ the size of a walnut situated around the urethra beneath the bladder. Age-related hormonal changes in males, particularly an increase in dihydrotestosterone (DHT), can cause the prostate gland to grow due to the proliferation of prostate cells. Due to the prostate gland pressing against the urethra and partially obstructing and restricting urine flow, this enlargement can cause a number of urinary symptoms. Urinary frequency, urgency, hesitation, weak stream, incomplete bladder emptying, and nocturia (frequent nighttime urine) are all common symptoms of BPH. Although the precise origin of BPH is yet unknown, age, genetics, and hormonal changes are thought to have a role in its occurrence. Although BPH is typically thought of as a benign ailment, if left untreated, it can have a substantial negative impact on a patient's quality of life. The evaluation of a patient's medical history, a physical examination, and maybe further tests such an ultrasound, PSA test, and digital rectal exam are frequently combined to make a diagnosis. According on the intensity of the symptoms and the patient's preferences, management techniques change. Mild cases can be controlled by making lifestyle adjustments such cutting back on coffee and alcohol, decreasing fluid consumption before bed, and exercising frequently. Alpha-blockers and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors are two medications that can be used to treat symptoms by relaxing smooth muscles and shrinking the prostate. Minimally invasive procedures including transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), laser therapy, or transurethral microwave therapy (TUMT) could be advised in more serious cases where conservative approaches fail to work. These procedures are intended to enhance urine flow and relieve urinary blockage. It's crucial for people who are having BPH symptoms to get medical help in order to decide the best course of action and guarantee the best management of their illness.