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Sglt2 Inhibitors

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An oral drug class called sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors is used to treat type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM). They function by preventing the kidneys' SGLT2 protein from doing its job, which lowers renal glucose reabsorption and encourages the excretion of extra glucose in the urine. This method of action can result in large decreases in blood glucose levels and further advantages to the kidneys and cardiovascular system without requiring insulin. The ability of SGLT2 inhibitors to successfully lower blood glucose levels without producing hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) is one of its main advantages. For those with T2DM who may be at risk of hypoglycemia episodes when using other antidiabetic drugs, this is very beneficial. Apart from its impact on glucose levels, SGLT2 inhibitors have demonstrated advantages for the cardiovascular system. Clinical trials on SGLT2 inhibitor-treated individuals have shown decreased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including heart attack, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality. It is believed that a number of processes, such as enhanced arterial stiffness, blood pressure, and cardiac function, mediate these cardiovascular advantages. Moreover, SGLT2 inhibitors have shown benefits for renal protection. It has been demonstrated that they lower the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the risk of kidney disease development in individuals with type 2 diabetes, especially in those who already have kidney impairment.It is thought that hemodynamic effects, intraglomerular pressure drops, and the prevention of fibrotic and inflammatory processes in the kidneys are responsible for this renal protection. SGLT2 inhibitors such as canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin are frequently prescribed. These drugs are usually given orally once a day, and they are frequently used alongside insulin, sulfonylureas, metformin, and other antidiabetic drugs. SGLT2 inhibitors have a good safety profile and are effective, although they can cause some side effects. These include a higher risk of genital mycotic infections, UTIs, and volume depletion-related adverse events like hypotension and dehydration. Furthermore, reports of uncommon but severe side effects, including euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and acute kidney damage (AKI), have been linked to the use of SGLT2 inhibitors, especially in specific patient populations. Therefore, while prescribing SGLT2 inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, healthcare professionals should carefully assess the unique characteristics of each patient and keep an eye out for these potential dangers.