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Sesquiterpenes are a broad group of chemical molecules that are widely distributed in the natural world, especially in plants. Their molecular structure, which is made up of three isoprene units, gives them special chemical and biological characteristics. Sesquiterpenes have attracted a lot of attention in industries including pharmacy, perfumery, and agriculture since they are crucial to many biological processes. The sesquiterpene lactones, which are extensively dispersed in the plant family Asteraceae, are one well-known class of sesquiterpenes. These substances are recognized for their anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, and anti-tumor properties. They also have a lactone ring. Sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin, which was discovered from Artemisia annua, has garnered interest due to its strong antimalarial properties. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, another noteworthy family of sesquiterpenes, are those that do not have oxygen functions and are frequently in charge of giving plants their distinctive scents. Black pepper, cloves, and cannabis all contain β-caryophyllene, a sesquiterpene hydrocarbon that has been shown to have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.Interest in its potential as a treatment has increased because to its capacity to interact with the endocannabinoid system. Essential oils often contain sesquiterpene alcohols, which are defined by the presence of hydroxyl groups in their structures.Farnesol is a desirable ingredient in cosmetics and personal care products since it has antibacterial and antifungal qualities. It may be found in various plants, such as citrus fruits and roses. Sesquiterpene ethers are also substances that have an oxygen bridge positioned between two carbon atoms.One such is the previously mentioned artemisinin, which is frequently used to treat malaria because of its strong antimalarial properties. The cyclization of farnesyl pyrophosphate, a precursor produced by plants using the mevalonate route, is a step in the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes. Many enzymes, including terpene synthases, catalyze processes involving cyclization and rearrangement to generate a variety of sesquiterpene structures. To sum up, sesquiterpenes are an intriguing group of natural substances with a variety of chemical compositions and biological properties. Their abundance in plants highlights their significance in the natural world, where they perform a variety of ecological roles. Moreover, they are interesting candidates for the creation of novel medications and therapeutic agents due to their pharmacological characteristics. Sesquiterpene research could lead to the discovery of new substances with useful uses in agriculture, medicine, and other fields.