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Racetams are a class of synthetic nootropic drugs that share a pyrrolidone nucleus. They are thought to work by modulating glutamate receptors, specifically AMPA receptors, leading to Ca2+ influx that is excitatory. Racetams are posited to enhance memory through interaction with glutamate receptors in the central nervous system. The first racetam, piracetam, was discovered in the late 1960s by Corneliu E. Giurgea, a Romanian chemist and psychologist. Piracetam was initially marketed as a treatment for cerebral insufficiency, but it was later found to have no significant effects on cognitive function. However, piracetam did appear to have some benefits for memory and learning in people with certain neurological conditions. In the 1970s, other racetams were developed, including aniracetam, oxiracetam, pramiracetam, and phenylpiracetam. These racetams have been shown to have more potent cognitive-enhancing effects than piracetam. Racetams are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as prescription drugs, but they are available as dietary supplements. There is limited research on the long-term safety of racetams, and they can have side effects such as headaches, anxiety, and insomnia. Some of the potential benefits of racetams include: Improved memory Enhanced learning Increased focus and concentration Reduced anxiety Improved mood Increased energy levels However, it is important to note that there is limited scientific evidence to support these claims. More research is needed to determine the long-term safety and efficacy of racetams. If you are considering taking racetams, it is important to talk to your doctor first. They can help you determine if racetams are right for you and can advise you on the best way to take them.