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Pentachlorophenols (PCPs) are a group of chemical compounds that result from the chlorination of phenol. This process involves replacing five hydrogen atoms on the phenol ring with chlorine atoms, resulting in a highly chlorinated compound. PCPs have been historically utilized as wood preservatives, pesticides, and fungicides due to their potent antimicrobial properties. These chemicals are effective against a broad spectrum of organisms, making them valuable for protecting wood against decay and preventing the growth of fungi and bacteria. However, their persistent nature in the environment and potential toxicity have raised environmental and health concerns. PCPs can accumulate in soil and water, posing risks to ecosystems and organisms. Due to these concerns, the use of pentachlorophenols has been restricted or banned in several countries. Efforts have been made to find alternative, more environmentally friendly wood preservatives. Despite their decline in usage, PCPs may still persist in some environments, emphasizing the importance of ongoing monitoring and remediation efforts. Understanding the properties and risks associated with pentachlorophenols is crucial for implementing responsible environmental management practices.