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The building blocks of nucleic acids, which comprise DNA and RNA, are called nucleotides. In all living things, these molecules are necessary for the storage and transmission of genetic information. A pentose sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base make up each nucleotide's three major components. The nature and function of nucleotides are determined by the nitrogenous base, which is an essential component. DNA has four different types of nitrogenous bases: guanine (G), cytosine (C), thymine (T), and adenine (A). Thymine is replaced with uracil (U) in RNA. Purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine, cytosine, and uracil) are the two groups into which these bases are divided.In RNA, pentose sugar is ribose, whereas in DNA, it is deoxyribose. The presence or lack of an oxygen atom on the sugar ring's 2' carbon determines whether the two sugars are different from one another (ribose versus deoxyribose). The stability and operations of DNA and RNA are influenced by this differentiation.A phosphorus atom bound to four oxygen atoms is known as the phosphate group. It is essential to the construction of nucleic acids and gives nucleotides their acidic quality. Through phosphodiester interactions, the phosphate groups bind the nucleotides together to create the structural core of DNA and RNA molecules.A nitrogenous base connected to the pentose sugar's 1' carbon and a phosphate group to the sugar's 5' carbon represent the structure of a nucleotide. The linear chains of DNA and RNA are created by repeating this fundamental structure. The genetic information is carried by the nitrogenous base sequence throughout this chain, and the genetic code is determined by the base order. Nucleotides serve a variety of purposes in cells in addition to being necessary for genetic information. They function as coenzymes in metabolic processes, signaling molecules, and energy carriers (much like ATP). Modified nucleotides also have roles in the regulation and expression of genes.Comprehending the composition and roles of nucleotides is essential for grasping genetics, molecular biology, and numerous other facets of biology and biochemistry. All life, from the simplest to the most sophisticated, is complex due to the complex interactions between these molecules.