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Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor

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A class of drugs known as monoamine oxidase inhibitors, or MAOIs, is mainly prescribed to treat anxiety and depression. They function by preventing the action of the monoamine oxidase enzyme, which is essential for the breakdown of neurotransmitters like norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin. MAOIs elevate these neurotransmitter levels in the brain by inhibiting the activity of this enzyme, which improves mood and lessens anxiety and depressive symptoms.Phenelzine, first produced in the 1950s, is among the first known MAOIs. For decades, phenelzine has been used in conjunction with other MAOIs such as tranylcypromine and isocarboxazid to treat depression when other drugs have failed. But still Because of its serious adverse effect risk and ability to interact with specific foods and drugs, MAOIs are typically used as second or third-line therapy.MAOIs have demonstrated effectiveness in treating a variety of depression types, including atypical depression, which can manifest as symptoms including hypersomnia, increased hunger, and a pattern of emotional reactivity. Additionally, they have been used to treat social anxiety disorder and panic disorder. MAOIs are helpful, but they come with a lot of hazards, so medical professionals need to monitor them closely. The potential for MAOIs to cause is one of the biggest worries. interact with specific foods rich in tyramine, a substance present in damaged, aged, or fermented foods. When these items are consumed with MAOIs, it can cause a hypertensive crisis, which is characterized by a dangerously high blood pressure spike that can be fatal.Furthermore, MAOIs may interact with a number of medications, such as other antidepressants, some pain relievers, and treatments for migraine headaches. Serotonin syndrome, a potentially lethal illness with symptoms like fever, agitation, fast heartbeat, and confusion, may arise from these interactions. Dizziness, tiredness, sleeplessness, weight gain, and sexual dysfunction are typical adverse effects of MAOIs. MAOIs are usually recommended under tight supervision because of the possibility of major side effects and interactions. Patients are encouraged to strictly follow food and pharmaceutical limitations while taking these drugs. The majority of first-line therapies for anxiety and depression in recent years have been replaced with safer antidepressants with improved adverse effect profiles, rather than MAOIs. For people who do not react to other therapy, MAOIs are still a viable alternative