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A class of steroid hormones known as mineralocorticoids is essential for controlling the body's water and electrolyte balance. Aldosterone is the main mineralocorticoid, and it is produced in the adrenal glands, mostly in the outer layer called the adrenal cortex. These hormones mainly affect the kidneys, where they have an impact on potassium excretion as well as the absorption of salt and water. Aldosterone stimulates the kidneys' collecting ducts and distal tubules, increasing the excretion of potassium ions while facilitating the reabsorption of sodium ions and water. Sustaining appropriate blood pressure, volume, and electrolyte balance depends on this system. An essential component in controlling aldosterone secretion is the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Low blood pressure or low salt levels cause the kidneys to release renin, which starts a chain reaction that eventually produces and releases aldosterone. Mineralocorticoids have effects that go beyond the kidneys. Additionally, they affect the colon, salivary glands, and sweat glands, which helps these tissues maintain the proper balance of salt and water. Furthermore, mineralocorticoids influence the reabsorption of hydrogen ions in the renal tubules, which contributes to blood pH regulation. Mineralocorticoid level imbalances can have important physiological ramifications. Primary hyperaldosteronism, an illness marked by low potassium levels and hypertension, can result from excessive aldosterone production, which is frequently caused by abnormalities of the adrenal glands. Conversely, disorders such as Addison's disease, characterized by low blood pressure, exhaustion, and electrolyte abnormalities, can arise from inadequate synthesis of mineralocorticoids. Fludrocortisone is one of the synthetic analogs of mineralocorticoids that are used clinically to treat disorders linked to low aldosterone levels. In patients with adrenal insufficiency, these drugs help control blood pressure and electrolyte balance. To sum up, mineralocorticoids—in particular, aldosterone—are essential for preserving homeostasis because they control the balance of water and electrolytes. They play a crucial role in maintaining blood pressure, kidney function, and general physiological stability.