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Eicosanoids are a broad class of bioactive lipid molecules that are essential to a number of bodily physiological processes. These substances are formed from arachidonic acid, a 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid that is commonly consumed or produced in cell membranes. Eicosanoids function as autocrine and paracrine signaling molecules, and they are distinguished by their localized and quick effects. They control a variety of biological processes, including blood coagulation, immunological responses, and inflammation. Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes are the three primary categories into which eicosanoids can be generally divided. The most well-known of these are prostaglandins, which play a role in a number of physiological processes include the control of blood pressure, inflammation, and pain perception. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIDs) frequently target them to reduce inflammatory reactions. Leukotrienes, on the other hand, are implicated in diseases like asthma and allergies since they are largely linked to increasing inflammation, bronchoconstriction, and immunological responses. Vasoconstriction and blood clotting depend heavily on thromboxanes. Eicosanoids work by attaching to particular cell surface receptors and starting intracellular signaling cascades that eventually cause a physiological response. To maintain homeostasis, the body strictly controls the balance and regulation of eicosanoid production. Eicosanoid levels that are out of equilibrium can cause respiratory ailments, cardiovascular diseases, and chronic inflammation, among other health problems. Drugs that target the synthesis or activity of eicosanoids have been developed as a result of an understanding of their complex activities, offering treatment options for diseases like arthritis, cardiovascular disease, and asthma. Eicosanoids are an interesting and important area of study in the fields of biochemistry and pharmacology due to the ongoing discovery of their participation in a variety of disease processes.