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Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4

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Dipeptidyl peptidase-4, or DPP-4, is an enzyme that controls how glucose is metabolized. It is essential for the breakdown of incretin hormones, which trigger the pancreas to release insulin in response to meal consumption. The multifunctional enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4, or DPP-4, is essential to the maintenance of glucose homeostasis in the human body. This enzyme is widely distributed in many different organs, such as the gut, liver, kidney, and endothelial cells. It is a member of the serine protease family. DPP-4's role in the breakdown of incretin hormones is one of its primary tasks. Gastrointestinal hormones known as incretins, such as glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are released following a meal. Because these hormones inhibit the release of glucagon from pancreatic alpha cells and stimulate the secretion of insulin from pancreatic beta cells, they are crucial for preserving normal blood glucose levels.When released, incretin hormones attach to certain receptors on pancreatic beta cells, starting a signaling chain reaction that increases the secretion of insulin. However, because DPP-4 breaks them down so quickly, their activity is fleeting. Incretin hormones' N-terminal dipeptide is cleaved by DPP-4, making them inactive and shortening their half-lives. The fact that DPP-4 is a target for type 2 diabetes treatment emphasizes the importance of this protein in glucose metabolism. By delaying the effects of incretin hormones, inhibition of DPP-4 activity improves peripheral tissue glucose absorption, increases insulin secretion, and decreases hepatic glucose synthesis. Medication referred to as DPP-4 inhibitors, including linagliptin, saxagliptin, and sitagliptin, is designed to selectively target and block DPP-4 action.DPP-4 is involved in several additional physiological processes in addition to glucose regulation. By influencing T-cell activity and cytokine production, it takes role in immunological control. Furthermore, DPP-4 has a role in the breakdown of neuropeptides that are crucial for the transmission of pain and the regulation of hunger, such as substance P and neuropeptide Y. To sum up, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is an essential enzyme that regulates the metabolism of glucose by breaking down incretin hormones. Its inhibition has become a key component of type 2 diabetes treatment, emphasizing how important it is to keep blood glucose levels within normal ranges. Furthermore, DPP-4's multiple roles in human physiology are highlighted by its involvement in immunological modulation and neuropeptide breakdown.