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Dihydropyridines (DHPs) are a class of chemical compounds having several pharmacological uses and a unique structure. These substances are well-known for their function as calcium channel blockers, which are mostly utilized in the treatment of angina and hypertension. The term "dihydropyridine" originates from the fact that the fundamental structure of DHPs is a pyridine ring with two hydrogen atoms at positions 1 and 4.The capacity of DHPs to inhibit L-type calcium channels is one of their main characteristics. These channels control the amount of calcium that enters cells, especially cardiac and smooth muscle cells. DHPs can efficiently lower the influx of calcium ions, resulting in vasodilation and decreased cardiac contractility, by blocking these channels. Their therapeutic usage in circumstances where lowering blood pressure and enhancing heart function are advantageous is based on this process.Amlodipine is a well-known instance of a calcium channel blocker based on DHP. Because of its effectiveness and comparatively low incidence of adverse effects, amlodipine is frequently given for angina and hypertension. By specifically inhibiting calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells, it works by causing vasodilation and a reduction in peripheral resistance. This lowers blood pressure without adversely affecting the heart's inotropic factors. Another well-known DHP is nifedipine, which functions similarly to amlodipine but acts faster initially. Because of its rapid dilation of the coronary arteries, nifedipine is frequently used to treat acute angina attacks by increasing blood supply to the heart muscle.Another notable characteristic of DHPs is their structural adaptability, which enables the synthesis of a wide range of derivatives with altered pharmacokinetic and pharmacological characteristics. Because of their varied structural makeup, several DHPs have been created that are suited to particular clinical situations. For example, extended-release formulations for once-daily use or combinations with other antihypertensive medications have been developed. To sum up, dihydropyridines are a class of chemical molecules that block calcium channels and have a pyridine core structure. Their main pharmacological effects, which are beneficial in the treatment of angina and hypertension, include vasodilation and decreased cardiac contractility. The therapeutic efficacy of DHPs in cardiovascular diseases is exemplified by drugs such as amlodipine and nifedipine. Current research endeavors to enhance these drugs' therapeutic characteristics.