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Antitubercular Agents

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pharmaceuticals used to treat tuberculosis (TB) are called antitubercular agents, or antituberculosis pharmaceuticals. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is a bacterial illness that mainly affects the lungs but can also spread to other regions of the body. To effectively treat tuberculosis and stop the bacterium from becoming drug-resistant strains, many medications must be used together. Isoniazid (INH) is a key medication used in the treatment of tuberculosis. It functions by preventing the production of mycolic acids, which are vital elements of the cell wall of mycobacteria. In order to treat both latent TB infection and current TB disease, INH is frequently used in conjunction with other medications. However, long-term INH usage can cause peripheral neuropathy, especially in those with underlying medical disorders or inadequate nutrition. Another important medication used to treat tuberculosis is rifampin (RIF). It works by preventing the bacteria from synthesizing RNA. Because of its great efficacy, rifampin is frequently used with INH. On the other hand, it can result in a number of adverse effects, including hepatotoxicity, flu-like symptoms, and orange discolouration of body fluids. Third-line medication Pyrazinamide (PZA) is frequently used in the first stage of tuberculosis treatment. It functions by interfering with the metabolism and cell membrane of the bacteria. PZA works especially well against bacteria that are dormant. But it can also result in hyperuricemia and hepatotoxicity. Another medication used to treat tuberculosis is ethambutol (EMB). It blocks the creation of cell walls. EMB is frequently a part of the first treatment plan, particularly in cases when medication resistance is expected or proven. Optic neuritis is a prominent adverse effect of EMB that can cause visual impairment. One of the first medications used to treat tuberculosis (TB) was the aminoglycoside antibiotic streptomycin. It stops protein synthesis by attaching itself to the bacterial ribosome. However, streptomycin is no longer as often used in the treatment of tuberculosis because safer, more effective medications are now available. In order to stop drug resistance from developing, these medications are frequently administered in combination. For drug-susceptible TB, the usual treatment plan consists of an intensive phase that is followed by a continuation phase, and it usually lasts six to nine months. However, the length of time and combination of medications may change depending on the patient's age, the results of a drug susceptibility test, and the existence of additional medical conditions.