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Antineoplastic Agents

Category Details :

Often referred to as anticancer drugs, antineoplastic agents are a broad class of pharmaceuticals intended to stop the development and metastasis of cancer cells. These medications interfere with the biology of cancer cells by targeting several aspects of the cells' ability to divide and survive. Antineoplastic drugs come in a variety of types, each with its own specific methods of action and adverse effect profiles. Alkylating Agents: These medications stop cancer cells from proliferating and dividing by directly harming their DNA. Temozolomide, cisplatin, and cyclophosphamide are a few examples. They are used to treat solid tumors, lymphomas, leukemia, and other types of cancer. Antimetabolites: These medications function as fictitious building blocks for DNA and RNA synthesis, interfering with the regular metabolic activities of cancer cells. Two common examples are 5-fluorouracil and methotrexate. Leukemia, colorectal cancer, and breast cancer are all treated with them. Antitumor Antibiotics: These medications come from organic sources like fungus and bacteria. They function by preventing the production of RNA and DNA. Antitumor drugs include bleomycin and doxorubicin. They are employed in the management of Hodgkin lymphoma, lung cancer, and breast cancer. Topoisomerase Inhibitors: These substances obstruct the activity of topoisomerases, which are enzymes that aid in the wrapping and unwinding of DNA strands during the replication process. This group of drugs includes irinotecan and etoposide. They are employed in the treatment of leukemia, ovarian cancer, and lung cancer. Mitotic Inhibitors: These medications interfere with mitosis, stopping cancer cells from proliferating and dividing. Mitotic inhibitors include, for example, vinblastine and paclitaxel. They are employed in the treatment of lung, ovarian, and breast cancers. Hormone Antagonists: Hormone antagonists can be used to treat tumors that are hormone-dependent, such as prostate and breast cancer. These medications prevent the synthesis of hormones or tamper with hormone receptors. Leuprolide and tamoxifen are two examples of medications used to treat prostate and breast cancer. Targeted Therapies: These medications focus on particular molecules or processes that contribute to the development and spread of cancer. Examples include monoclonal antibodies (such as trastuzumab for HER2-positive breast cancer) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (such as imatinib for chronic myeloid leukemia). These medications work well to treat cancer, but because they affect the body's fast dividing cells—such as those in the gastrointestinal system and hair follicles—they can also have serious side effects. Keeping these side effects under control is crucial to cancer treatment in order to give patients receiving therapy the best quality of life possible.