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Antimicrobial Drug Class

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A family of pharmaceuticals known as antimicrobial drugs is intended to treat microbiological infections brought on by bacteria, viruses, fungus, or parasites. These medications are crucial to contemporary medicine because they can be used to treat a variety of infections, from minor ailments like urinary tract infections to more serious conditions like tuberculosis. The major categories of antimicrobial medications are broken down as follows: Antibiotics: One of the most traditional and often used classes of antibiotics are penicillins. They function by preventing the formation of bacterial cell walls, which results in cell death. Amoxicillin and penicillin G are two examples. Cephalosporins: These antibiotics work by targeting the bacterial cell wall, just like penicillins do. They are frequently given to people who are allergic to penicillin as a substitute. Cephalexin and ceftriaxone are two examples. Antibiotics known as macrolides prevent bacteria from synthesizing proteins. They are frequently used to treat some STDs and respiratory tract infections. Erythromycin and azithromycin are two examples. Tetracyclines: Tetracyclines function by preventing the synthesis of proteins in bacterial cells, making them effective against a broad range of bacteria. Lyme disease, respiratory infections, and acne are treated with them. Tetracycline and doxycycline are two examples. Fluoroquinolones: These antibiotics prevent the reproduction of bacterial DNA. They are used to treat a variety of illnesses, such as respiratory and urinary tract infections. Levofloxacine and ciprofloxacine are two examples. Antivirals: Reverse transcriptase, an enzyme essential to HIV replication, is inhibited by nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Emtricitabine and tenofovir are two examples. Protease Inhibitors: An additional type of HIV medications, protease inhibitors block an enzyme required for the virus to multiply. Darunavir and ritonavir are two examples. antifungals Azoles: These medications prevent the production of cell membranes by inhibiting the function of fungal enzymes. They treat many different types of fungal diseases. Fluconazole and ketoconazole are two examples. Echinocandins: Echinocandins target the formation of cell walls and are effective against specific types of fungi. For invasive candidiasis, they're employed. Micafungin and capsofungin are two examples. Antiparasitic medications: Antimalarials: These medications target the life cycle of the malaria parasite and are used to prevent and treat malaria. Examples include derivatives of artemisinin and chloroquine. Anthelmintics: Worm infections are treated with these medications. They function by either killing or paralyzing the worms. Mebendazole and albendazole are two examples. Every class of antibiotics targets a distinct kind of pathogen and has a unique mechanism of action. It's imperative to use antibiotics correctly, which includes finishing the entire course of therapy, to stop the emergence of antibiotic resistance.