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Antimalarial Drugs

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Antimalarial pharmaceuticals are prescription treatments used to treat or prevent malaria, a potentially fatal disease spread by parasites that are carried by mosquito bites. Antimalarial medications come in a variety of forms, each with a unique mode of action and level of effectiveness against the various phases of the malaria parasite life cycle. Chloroquine: A common antimalarial medication in the past, chloroquine was used to treat and prevent malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium ovale. It functions by building up in the acidic feeding vacuoles of the parasite, blocking hemoglobin breakdown and obstructing the parasite's ability to absorb nutrients. However, its usage has been drastically curtailed in many regions of the world because to widespread resistance, especially in Plasmodium falciparum. Combination therapies using artemisinin and artemisinin (ACTs): Sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) is the source of the powerful antimalarial medication artemisinin. In order to maximize effectiveness and lower the possibility of resistance, ACTs mix artemisinin with other antimalarials such as lumefantrine, mefloquine, or piperaquine. Nowadays, ACTs and artemisinin are the mainstays of malaria treatment everywhere, especially for Plasmodium falciparum-induced mild cases of malaria. Mefloquin: Another medication used to treat and prevent malaria is mefloquine, particularly in regions where strains of the disease are resistant to chloroquine. Like chloroquine, it is a member of the 4-aminoquinoline drug class. Mefloquine is frequently prescribed as a preventative medication for visitors to areas where malaria is resistant to many drugs. Between atovaquone- proguanil and doxycycline: These medications are frequently used to prevent malaria. A tetracycline antibiotic with antimalarial qualities, doxycycline is helpful for prophylaxis in locations where strains of the disease are resistant to chloroquine. Under the trade name Malarone, atovaquone-proguanil is a combination medication that is very efficient against strains of Plasmodium falciparum that are resistant to chloroquine. Primate: Because it may specifically target the liver stages of the malaria parasite, primaquine is unusual in its ability to stop infections with Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale from relapsing. In order to completely heal patients and stop their illness from returning, it is frequently used in conjunction with other antimalarial medications. These antimalarial medications are essential for treating and preventing malaria, which is still a serious public health issue, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. The rise of drug-resistant strains, however, emphasizes the continued need for investigation and the creation of fresh antimalarial therapies.