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Antiepileptic Drugs

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The main purpose of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is to treat seizures, which are a common sign of epilepsy. These medications function by preventing or lessening the frequency of seizures by regulating electrical activity in the brain. AEDs come in a variety of forms, each with unique methods of action and possible negative effects. We'll look at a few typical AEDs and their traits here: Dilantin, or phenytoin: Mechanism: Phenytoin lowers neuron excitability by obstructing voltage-sensitive sodium channels. Use: It works well for tonic-clonic and focal (partial) seizures. Side effects: Gingival hyperplasia, or the expansion of gum tissue, and vertigo are common side effects. Agripazome (Tegretol): Mechanism: By inhibiting sodium channels, this medication also lowers the excitability of neurons. Use: Good for trigeminal neuralgia, focal seizures, and tonic-clonic seizures. Side effects: Sleepiness, dizziness, and very dangerous skin reactions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome are common side effects.Acid Valproic (Depakote): Mechanism: The brain's concentrations of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA are raised by valproic acid. Use: It is applied to several kinds of seizures, such as absence, generalized, and focal seizures. Adverse effects: Especially with prolonged use, weight gain, tremors, and liver damage are possible side effects. Lamimedil (lamotrigine): Mechanism: Excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate is inhibited from being released by lamotrigine, which also blocks sodium channels. Use: Good as bipolar illness maintenance medication and for focal and tonic-clonic seizures. Side effects: Headache, lightheadedness, and skin rash (including infrequent, severe rashes like Stevens-Johnson syndrome) are common side effects. Keppra, or levetiracetam: Levetiracetam functions by attaching itself to the protein SV2A in synaptic vesicles, hence adjusting the release of neurotransmitters. Usage: It is applied to both generalized tonic-clonic seizures and localized seizures. Side effects: Especially in youngsters, irritability, sleepiness, and behavioral abnormalities are common side effects. Topamax, or topiramate: Mechanism: GABA activity is increased, glutamate receptors are inhibited, and sodium channels are blocked by topiramate. Use: Good as a preventative measure against migraines and for focal and tonic-clonic seizures. Side Effects: Weight loss, renal stones, and cognitive slowness are typical side effects. The kind of seizures, the patient's age, gender, and general health are all taken into consideration while prescribing these medications. Patients must take their prescriptions exactly as directed and notify their healthcare practitioner of any worrying side effects.