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Anticonvulsants, sometimes referred to as antiepileptic medicines, or AEDs, are prescription treatments that are mostly used to treat and prevent seizures. They function by bringing the brain's electrical activity under control, which lessens the chance of aberrant or excessive neuronal firing, which can cause seizures. This is a list of popular anticonvulsants and their mechanisms of action: Dilantin, or phenytoin: Mechanism: The action of phenytoin involves the blockage of voltage-sensitive sodium channels in neurons, hence assisting in the prevention of rapid and repetitive neuronal activity, which has been linked to seizures. Applications: It works well to treat a variety of seizures, such as complex partial seizures and tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures. Side Effects: Nausea, rash, dizziness, and sleepiness are typical side effects. Additionally, prolonged use may cause gingival hyperplasia, or the enlargement of gum tissue. Acid Valproic (Depakote): Mechanism: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter that reduces neuron excitability, is elevated in response to valproic acid. This lessens the frequency of seizures. Applications: It is used to treat a variety of seizure diseases, such as complex partial seizures, absence seizures, and tonic-clonic seizures. Adverse effects: When using this medication for an extended period of time, weight gain, tremors, hair loss, and liver damage are possible side effects. Agripazome (Tegretol): Mechanism: Carbamazepine decreases neuron excitability by blocking sodium channels in a manner akin to that of phenytoin. Usage: It is frequently used to treat tonic-clonic and partial seizures. It also works well for treating a particular kind of nerve pain called trigeminal neuralgia. Side Effects: Aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis are uncommon but potentially fatal side effects that can include nausea, dizziness, and sleepiness. Lamimedil (lamotrigine): Mechanism: The excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate is inhibited by lamotrigine. It also alters sodium channels that are voltage-gated. Uses: It is used to treat bipolar disorder manic episodes as well as partial seizures and tonic-clonic seizures. Side Effects: Headache, lightheadedness, and rash (including severe rashes like Stevens-Johnson syndrome) are common side effects. Keppra, or levetiracetam: Though its precise mode of action is unknown, levetiracetam is thought to control the release of neurotransmitters. Applications: It is used to treat myoclonic, tonic-clonic, and partial seizures. Side Effects: Weakness, sleepiness, and mood swings are typical side effects. In general, it is more tolerable than certain other anticonvulsants. The kind of seizures a patient has, their general health, and any other medications they may be on are taken into consideration while prescribing these drugs. To identify the best course of action with the fewest possible side effects, patients must collaborate closely with their healthcare providers.