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Anticonvulsant Drugs

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Medications called anticonvulsant medicines, or antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), are intended to treat different kinds of epilepsy and seizures. These drugs function by bringing the brain's electrical activity under control, which lessens the possibility of aberrant or excessive neuronal firing, which can cause seizures. The following list includes several popular anticonvulsants: Dilantin, or phenytoin: One of the most traditional and commonly used anticonvulsants is phenytoin. By obstructing sodium channels in neurons, it helps stop aberrant electrical activity from spreading. Dizziness, sleepiness, and gum overgrowth (gingival hyperplasia) are common adverse effects. It is used to treat several kinds of seizures, such as partial and tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures. Acid Valproic (Depakote): Valproic acid is used to treat mood disorders such as bipolar disorder and is effective against a variety of seizure types. It exerts a calming effect by raising the brain's concentration of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).Weight gain, hair loss, and liver damage are possible side effects. Absence seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, and mixed forms of seizures are all treated with it. Agripazome (Tegretol): Both tonic-clonic and partial seizures can be effectively treated with this medication. It functions by lowering sodium channel activity in neurons. Skin rashes, fatigue, and disorientation are typical adverse effects. Trigeminal neuralgia is one of the nerve pain conditions for which it is also utilized. Lamimedil (lamotrigine):Both partial and generalized seizures can be treated with lamotrigine. Through the modulation of voltage-gated sodium channels, excitatory neurotransmitter release is decreased. Headaches, dizziness, and rash—including severe rashes like Stevens-Johnson syndrome—can be side effects. Bipolar disorder is another condition for which it is utilized. Keppra, or levetiracetam: For partial seizures, levetiracetam is frequently used as an adjuvant treatment. Although its exact mechanism is unknown, it is thought to control the release of neurotransmitters. Weakness, fatigue, and irritability are typical adverse effects. Its adverse effect profile is more favorable than that of certain other anticonvulsants. Neurontin, or gabapentin: Gabapentin is mainly prescribed to treat neuropathic pain, although it is also used as an adjuvant treatment for partial seizures. It functions by adjusting neurons' calcium channels. Weight gain, fatigue, and dizziness are typical adverse effects. Off-label prescriptions are also written for it in cases of anxiety and sleeplessness. Anticonvulsant medications may need to be closely monitored for effectiveness and adverse effects, therefore it's critical that anyone using them do so under a doctor's supervision. The type of seizures, the patient's age, and other unique criteria determine the dosage and particular medications that are prescribed.