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Adamantanes are a class of organic compounds with a distinct molecular structure and a wide range of uses in pharmacology and materials research. Adamantanes' core structure is a cage-like arrangement of carbon atoms that forms a hard and symmetrical shape. This unusual structure endows adamantanes with various intriguing features, resulting to their importance in a variety of sectors. Adamantane is a hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C10H16 that was discovered in the early 1930s. Amantadine, its most well-known derivative, was recognized for its antiviral capabilities, particularly in the treatment of influenza A. Amantadine works as a viral ion channel blocker by reducing the viral replication process. Rimantadine, an antiviral drug comparable to amantadine but with a more specific activity against influenza A, is another important adamantane derivative. Amantadine and rimantadine have both played critical roles in the management and prevention of influenza outbreaks. Aside from antiviral applications, adamantanes are useful in material sciences. Their stiff and symmetrical structure aids in the creation of diamondoid materials. Because of their molecular structural similarities to diamonds, these materials have extraordinary mechanical and electrical capabilities. Diamondoids, which are generated from adamantane, have showed potential in nanotechnology as building blocks for new nanomaterials and nanodevices. The remarkable structural stability of adamantanes has also piqued the interest of researchers working on new chemical molecules. Chemists and researchers are investigating ways to change the structure of adamantane to generate new compounds with varied functionality, such as medicines, polymers, and materials with specific optical or electrical properties. Despite their promising properties, adamantanes are not without restrictions and obstacles. The widespread use of amantadine has been hampered by the advent of resistant influenza virus strains. Furthermore, while adamantanes show promise in a variety of applications, their synthesis can be complicated and costly, restricting their widespread usage. Continued adamantanes research focuses on improving their characteristics, discovering novel derivatives, and developing more efficient synthesis methods. The versatility and peculiar structure of adamantanes continue to pique the interest of scientists, promising future advances in health, materials science, and nanotechnology.