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Schistosoma is a genus of parasitic trematode worms that includes multiple species that cause schistosomiasis, a common and debilitating disease in tropical and subtropical areas. Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium, and Schistosoma japonicum are among the important species, each with specific traits and geographical distributions. The life cycle of these parasites is complicated, with freshwater snails serving as intermediate hosts and humans serving as final hosts. The life cycle begins with eggs being discharged into freshwater bodies by infected humans via urine or feces. In the right conditions, these eggs hatch, producing miracidia that infect specific snail species. The parasite develops within the snail through various phases, culminating in the discharge of cercariae, free-swimming larvae, into the water. When infected water comes into contact with human skin, cercariae infect the person. They grow inside the human body into schistosomulae, which mature into adult worms. Depending on the species, male and female worms team up and live in blood arteries, typically those surrounding the bladder, intestines, or liver. The female worm lays eggs, some of which are expelled in urine or feces, thereby maintaining the cycle. Schistosomiasis manifests differently depending on the species. The intestines and liver are predominantly affected by S. mansoni and S. japonicum, resulting in symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and liver enlargement. S. haematobium is primarily responsible for hematuria and, in severe situations, bladder cancer. Avoiding contact with contaminated water sources, appropriate hygiene, and snail control efforts are all preventative methods. The medicine praziquantel, which is effective against adult worms and reduces symptoms and the risk of complications, is the mainstay of treatment. Reinfection, however, remains a worry in endemic locations. Schistosomiasis is a major public health concern, particularly in areas with poor sanitation and limited access to clean water. Efforts to improve sanitation, access to safe drinking water, preventive education, and mass drug administration campaigns are critical in battling this neglected tropical illness and minimizing its global impact on afflicted populations.