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Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (Nrtis)

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A type of antiviral medications known as nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, or NRTIs, is frequently prescribed to treat HIV/AIDS. They function by obstructing reverse transcriptase, an enzyme required for the HIV virus to replicate. By doing this, NRTIs contribute to the inhibition of viral replication, which lowers the amount of virus in the body and delays the course of the illness. The capacity of NRTIs to imitate natural nucleosides—the building blocks of DNA—is one of their primary modes of action.Rather than incorporating the natural nucleosides into its genetic material, the HIV virus uses these NRTIs as it tries to replicate. But once integrated, NRTIs are unable to make the chemical connections required to extend the DNA chain, which stops the replication process. There are numerous NRTIs available, each with special qualities and adverse effects of their own. Zidovudine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC), abacavir (ABC), emtricitabine (FTC), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) are a few of the frequently utilized NRTIs. One of the first NRTIs to be created, zidovudine is frequently used with other antiretroviral medications to treat HIV/AIDS. It has the potential to cause negative effects such peripheral neuropathy and bone marrow suppression when taken orally or intravenously. Emtricitabine and lamivudine are two structurally comparable NRTIs that are frequently used interchangeably in HIV treatment plans. They have a low chance of negative effects and are well tolerated. Prolonged use, however, may cause drug-resistant forms of HIV to emerge. Another NRTI that is frequently included in combination therapy for HIV/AIDS is abacavir. It is renowned for having strong, enduring effects. Hypersensitivity reactions, while rare but potentially fatal, are a risk associated with it. Prodrugs of the powerful NRTI tenofovir are tenofovir alafenamide and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Because of their effectiveness and tolerability, they are frequently included in HIV treatment plans. Tenofovir alafenamide, on the other hand, has a less hazardous profile for the kidneys and bones than tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, which has been linked to renal toxicity and a decrease in bone mineral density. In summary, by preventing viral replication, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are essential in the treatment of HIV/AIDS.