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About 85% of all instances of lung cancer are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), making it a common form of the disease. The most prevalent histologic subtypes of the heterogeneous illness are adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and big cell carcinoma. The most prevalent subtype of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is adenocarcinoma, which is frequently found in the outer areas of the lung and is linked to both smoking and non-smoking-related risk factors such exposure to radon and environmental contaminants. Patients tend to develop it earlier in life, and an advanced stage is frequently diagnosed. Smoking is highly linked to squamous cell carcinoma, which usually originates centrally in the bigger airways. Symptoms including hemoptysis, recurrent pneumonia, and cough may be present. A less common subtype of carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma is characterized by massive, undifferentiated cells that develop quickly. It is frequently detected at an advanced stage. Imaging tests like computed tomography (CT) scans, positron emission tomography (PET) scans, and biopsy for histologic confirmation are commonly used in the diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The identification of actionable mutations, such as those in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), ROS1, and BRAF V600E that can be targeted with specific inhibitors, is made possible through molecular testing of tumor tissue. The stage of the disease, the histologic subtype, the molecular profile, and the general health of the patient all influence the available treatment choices for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Surgery is the most common treatment for early-stage NSCLC. Adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation therapy may also be used.Treatment options for locally advanced disease may include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and, if necessary, surgery. Systemic treatments for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy. These treatments can be used alone or in combination, depending on the tumor's molecular makeup and the individual patient. The prognosis for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still unpredictable despite therapy breakthroughs, and overall survival rates are typically worse than those of other cancer types.On the other hand, recent advancements in immunotherapy and targeted medicines have greatly improved results for some patient subgroups, underscoring the significance of tailored medicine in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.Novel therapy approaches and biomarkers are still being investigated in ongoing research to improve patient outcomes and care in this difficult condition.