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A class of antiviral medications called nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) is frequently prescribed to treat HIV/AIDS. They function by preventing reverse transcriptase, an enzyme essential to the HIV virus's reproduction, from acting. NRTIs work by obstructing this process, which lowers the body's viral load, delays the disease's progression, and strengthens the immune system in HIV/AIDS patients. Zidovudine, or AZT, was among the first NRTIs to be created. It was a major breakthrough in the treatment of HIV/AIDS when it was authorized by the FDA in 1987. Lamivudine, stavudine, abacavir, emtricitabine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, and tenofovir alafenamide are among the additional NRTIs that have been created since then. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) or highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) are extremely effective treatment regimens that involve the combination of these pharmaceuticals with other kinds of antiretroviral medications. NRTIs are usually taken orally, either as single tablets or as fixed-dose combos with many medications. For patients living with HIV/AIDS, this dosing ease has significantly enhanced adherence to treatment plans and improved clinical results. such any drugs, NRTIs can have side effects, too, and these might include headaches, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and in rare situations, more serious adverse responses such lactic acidosis or liver toxicity. Thus, careful observation by medical professionals is necessary to guarantee the security and effectiveness of NRTI-based treatment. Even with the considerable advancements in the use of NRTIs and other antiretroviral medications to treat HIV/AIDS, there are still issues.These include the risk for long-term side effects, the emergence of medication resistance, and the requirement for lifelong adherence to therapy.Furthermore, in some parts of the world, access to these drugs may be restricted because of things like cost, the quality of the healthcare system, and the stigma attached to HIV/AIDS. In summary, during the past few decades, NRTIs have been a critical component in the management of HIV/AIDS.These medications' capacity to prevent viral replication has contributed to the transformation of HIV/AIDS from a once fatal illness into a chronic but treatable condition for a large number of people. In order to improve results and ultimately bring an end to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, antiretroviral therapy research and innovation must continue.