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Neutropenia is a medical disorder defined by an abnormally low neutrophil count, a kind of white blood cell that is essential for combating infections. Neutrophils are essential components of the body's immune system, particularly in the defense against bacterial and fungal diseases. When the number of these cells falls below normal levels, typically less than 1,500 cells per microliter of blood, the risk of infection increases. Neutropenia can be caused by a variety of factors, ranging from underlying medical disorders to specific medications or therapies. Among the most common causes are: Medications: Chemotherapy medications, which are used to treat cancer, frequently impair the bone marrow's ability to create white blood cells, resulting in neutropenia. As a side effect, other drugs such as antibiotics, antivirals, and antifungals can also induce this problem. Medical Conditions: Neutropenia can be caused by diseases such as leukemia, aplastic anemia, autoimmune disorders such as lupus, and viral infections such as HIV. These circumstances may either limit neutrophil production or hasten neutrophil breakdown. Nutritional Deficiencies: Low levels of key nutrients such as vitamin B12, folate, and copper can have an impact on the generation of white blood cells, particularly neutrophils. Neutropenia symptoms may not always be obvious, but when they do appear, they typically include: Individuals with neutropenia may suffer from recurring or severe infections, notably bacterial infections of the skin, respiratory tract, or urinary tract. Fever: Infections in neutropenic people frequently induce fever, which should be treated as soon as possible because it can suggest a serious underlying illness. Mouth Sores: Due to weakened immunity, painful sores or ulcers in the mouth and throat might develop. The treatment is determined by the underlying cause and severity of the neutropenia. In circumstances where drugs are to blame, changing or quitting the prescription may help to resolve the illness. Doctors may provide drugs to promote white blood cell synthesis or even growth factors to support neutrophil formation in extreme cases or people who are prone to infections. Patients with neutropenia must take steps to avoid infections, such as exercising excellent hygiene, avoiding people who have contagious illnesses, and leading a healthy lifestyle to support their immune system. Regular blood count monitoring is required to appropriately manage this illness.