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Metabolic Disorders

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A class of illnesses known as metabolic disorders are defined by anomalies in the body's chemical reactions, which frequently have an impact on the body's ability to metabolize food into energy. The general state of health and quality of life may be greatly impacted by some diseases. Diabetes mellitus is a well-known metabolic disease characterized by insufficient insulin production or inefficient use of the insulin that is produced by the body. For controlling blood sugar (glucose) levels, insulin is essential. There are two primary types: Type 1, in which the pancreatic cells that produce insulin are attacked by the immune system, and Type 2, in which the body gradually develops resistance to the effects of insulin. Diabetes consequences include heart disease, kidney damage, nerve damage, and vision loss can arise if the condition is not properly managed.Obesity: Although it's commonly thought of as a lifestyle problem, obesity is actually a metabolic disease. It is characterized by an excessive build-up of body fat, which raises the risk of major health issues like type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and several cancers. Since genetics, environment, and behavior all have a role in obesity, treating the illness is difficult. Thyroid disorders: Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism: The thyroid gland is essential for controlling metabolism. Excessive thyroid hormone production speeds up metabolism and generates symptoms including irritation, weight loss, and a fast heartbeat. This condition is known as hyperthyroidism. Conversely, hypothyroidism results from insufficient thyroid hormone production, which slows down metabolism and causes symptoms including weariness, weight gain, and cold sensitivity.A hereditary condition known as phenylketonuria (PKU) causes the body to improperly metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine. Phenylalanine accumulates to dangerous amounts in the absence of treatment, which can result in behavioral disorders, intellectual impairments, seizures, and other major health concerns. PKU is frequently detected in newborns in order to guarantee prompt diagnosis and therapy. Celiac Disease: Although it is frequently thought of as a digestive issue, celiac disease also affects metabolism. Gluten, a protein present in wheat, barley, and rye, causes an immunological reaction in certain people that destroys the small intestine. Nutrient absorption is hampered by this damage, which results in malnutrition and other metabolic problems.The inability of the body to effectively digest galactose, a sugar present in milk and dairy products, is known as galactosemia, a rare hereditary condition. Galactose can build up to hazardous amounts without therapy, which can harm the brain, kidneys, and liver. From birth, lactose-containing foods must be avoided by infants with galactosemia. These are only a few instances of metabolic illnesses that can affect health in a variety of ways. People with these disorders need to be properly diagnosed, treated, and managed in order for them to live healthy lives.