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Leukemia is a type of cancer that starts in the bone marrow, which is where blood cells are made. It impairs the body's ability to manufacture healthy blood cells, resulting in an excess of aberrant white blood cells. These abnormal blood cells push out healthy blood cells, reducing the body's ability to fight infections and creating a variety of issues. Leukemia is divided into four categories: acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The classification is determined by the type of blood cell affected and the rate at which the disease progresses. Leukemia symptoms vary based on the type and stage of the disease. Fatigue, weakness, recurrent infections, fever, easy bruising or bleeding, swollen lymph nodes, and weight loss are all common symptoms. These symptoms are frequently misdiagnosed as other, less dangerous illnesses, which delays diagnosis. Although the actual cause of leukemia is not always known, some risk factors may enhance one's chances of having the disease. High amounts of radiation exposure, certain chemotherapy medicines, hereditary factors, and certain blood problems or past chemotherapy treatments are all risk factors for leukemia. A series of procedures, including blood testing, bone marrow biopsies, and imaging scans, is usually used to confirm the existence of leukemia cells and define the type and stage of the disease. Treatment methods vary depending on the type of leukemia, the patient's age and overall health, and the stage of the cancer. Chemotherapy, targeted therapy, radiation therapy, and stem cell transplantation are all common therapies for leukemia. A combination of these treatments may be employed in some circumstances. The treatment's purpose is to kill the aberrant cells while allowing healthy blood cells to proliferate. While leukemia treatment has evolved greatly in recent years, it can be difficult, and prognosis varies depending on various factors. Some people may achieve remission with treatment, while others may require continued therapy or relapses. Supportive care, which includes controlling symptoms and side effects of treatment, is critical in enhancing the quality of life for people with leukemia. New cures and treatments are being developed, which gives patients affected with this condition hope for a better prognosis.