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Leprosy, commonly known as Hansen's disease, is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae bacteria. It primarily affects the skin, peripheral nerves, upper respiratory tract mucosal surfaces, and the eyes, resulting in skin lesions and nerve damage. Contrary to popular belief, leprosy is not very contagious and can be treated with multidrug therapy (MDT). The bacteria that cause leprosy preferentially infect colder parts of the body, such as the skin, peripheral nerves, and nasal mucosa. This preference causes the disease's typical symptoms, such as skin lesions, nerve damage, and sensory loss. Skin manifestations range from hypopigmented areas to nodules and thickened, irritated skin. Sensation loss in affected areas is a typical side effect, which can lead to undiscovered injuries and infections. Leprosy has a long incubation period, with symptoms often appearing years later. Because of the delay in symptom onset, determining the particular source of infection is difficult. The disease, on the other hand, spreads via respiratory droplets, primarily through prolonged and close contact with untreated persons. Multidrug therapy (MDT) is the standard treatment for leprosy, according to the World Health Organization. This treatment usually consists of a cocktail of antibiotics such as dapsone, rifampicin, and clofazimine. MDT is extremely effective at halting illness progression and preventing disease transmission to others. Despite improved treatment, societal stigma remains a serious barrier for leprosy patients. Misconceptions and anxiety about the disease have resulted in prejudice and exclusion of persons who have been diagnosed. Advocacy and education are critical in dispelling myths and fostering acceptance and support for those who are impacted. Early detection and treatment are critical in treating leprosy and preventing impairments caused by nerve damage. Regular monitoring and follow-up care essential to prevent problems and assure treatment success. The prevalence of leprosy has dropped dramatically throughout the years as a result of concerted global efforts and healthcare measures. However, ongoing monitoring, awareness efforts, and easily accessible healthcare services are required to achieve the ultimate aim of eliminating this old disease.