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Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by Leishmania protozoan parasites. It is spread to humans and animals via the bite of infected female sandflies, primarily those of the Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia genera. Leishmaniasis is common in tropical and subtropical regions, impacting over 98 countries and resulting in an estimated 1.5 million new cases each year. Leishmaniasis is classified into three types: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral. The most prevalent form is cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), which is characterized by skin ulcers on exposed body regions such as the face, arms, and legs. While CL lesions usually cure on their own, they can cause deformity and scarring. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) is a more severe variant that can produce devastating lesions not only on the skin but also on the nose, mouth, and throat mucous membranes. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), often known as kala-azar, is the most serious form and, if ignored, can be fatal. It affects internal organs such as the spleen, liver, and bone marrow, resulting in symptoms such as fever, weight loss, anemia, and spleen and liver enlargement. To identify the parasite, clinical examination, microscopic inspection of tissue samples, or molecular studies are used to diagnose leishmaniasis. Treatment methods differ depending on the type and severity of the condition. Antimonials such as sodium stibogluconate and meglumine antimoniate have been the basis of treatment, however resistance has emerged in some areas. Depending on the kind of leishmaniasis and local medication resistance patterns, other treatments such as amphotericin B, miltefosine, and paromomycin are also utilized. Prevention and control measures focus on limiting sandfly exposure. Using insect repellents, wearing protective clothes, and implementing vector control techniques such as insecticide-treated bed nets and environmental management to reduce sandfly breeding sites are all part of the solution. Moreover, efforts to create vaccinations against leishmaniasis are underway, but no widely available and effective vaccine for human usage has been developed. Global efforts by health organizations, governments, researchers, and communities to combat leishmaniasis are critical. Improved monitoring, early detection, accessible treatment, and integrated vector management are critical components in lowering the burden of this neglected tropical illness on affected populations.