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Intraocular Pressure

Application Details :

In ophthalmology, intraocular pressure (IOP), which represents the pressure inside the eye, is a crucial metric. The equilibrium between the production and drainage of the aqueous humor—the fluid inside the eye—determines this pressure. The normal range of intraocular pressure (IOP) is 10 to 21 mmHg, with small individual variances.A fine balance of fluid dynamics allows the eye to keep its form and function. The tissue known as the ciliary body, located behind the iris, is constantly producing aqueous humor. It performs a number of vital tasks, including keeping the cornea and avascular lens nourished, keeping the shape of the eye, and eliminating metabolic waste. The aqueous humor feeds these structures and then exits the eye by the trabecular meshwork (90%) and uveoscleral pathway (10%).IOP alterations may occur if this balance is upset. Glaucoma may develop as a result of elevated IOP, sometimes referred to as ocular hypertension. A class of eye conditions called glaucoma is defined by harm to the optic nerve and is frequently linked to elevated intraocular pressure. If left untreated, this injury can result in blindness and/or loss of vision. IOP levels can be influenced by various circumstances. Age is a major issue; as people age, their IOP often rises because their outflow facility decreases. Another factor is genetics; those who have a family history of glaucoma are more susceptible. Additionally, race may play a role, with African Americans being more likely to acquire glaucoma. IOP measurement is a standard component of an eye exam and is essential for glaucoma diagnosis and treatment. Applanation tonometry is the most widely used technique. It involves gently flattening the cornea with a tiny instrument to measure the force needed to do so, which is correlated with IOP. Other techniques include handheld tonometry devices and non-contact tonometry, which evaluates the cornea's response with a puff of air. The goal of treating excessive IOP is to either promote drainage, decrease fluid generation, or do both. Depending on the severity and course of the problem, eyedrops, laser procedures (such as trabeculoplasty), and surgical options (such as trabeculectomy or shunt implants) are used. To sum up, intraocular pressure is an important component of eye health, and variations from the normal range may be a sign of glaucoma or other underlying disorders. For early detection and management, especially for those who are more vulnerable, routine eye exams are essential.