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Hiv-2 Infection

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In the late 1980s, West Africans were the main population affected by HIV-2 at the time of its discovery. Although its frequency varies geographically, it is less transmissible than HIV-1 and is mainly disseminated through mother-to-child transmission, blood transfusions, and sexual contact. Although HIV-2 and HIV-1 are structurally and genetically similar, HIV-2 progresses to AIDS more slowly and has a lower viral load, which may affect its transmission dynamics and clinical effects. Due to its genetic variety, HIV-2 infection can be difficult to diagnose and may compromise the precision of diagnostic procedures intended primarily for HIV-1 detection. Accurate diagnosis requires specialized testing that can identify antigens and antibodies against both HIV-1 and HIV-2. Clinically, HIV-2 infection advances more slowly than HIV-1 infection, showing lower rates of transmission and a longer asymptomatic phase. When symptoms do appear, they are similar to those of HIV-1 infection and include opportunistic infections, exhaustion, weight loss, and a persistent fever. Similar to HIV-1, antiretroviral treatment (ART) is used to treat HIV-2 infection. Nevertheless, several antiretroviral medications that are frequently used to treat HIV-1 may be less successful against HIV-2 due to variations in viral biology and drug resistance. Consequently, various medication combinations, such as protease inhibitors (PIs), integrase inhibitors, and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), are frequently needed for HIV-2 therapy regimens. Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) can considerably enhance the prognosis and quality of life for people with HIV-2, despite these obstacles. In order to lower the danger of HIV-2 transmission by injecting drug use, prevention efforts for the virus include the adoption of clean needles and syringes, safe sex practices, and access to HIV testing and counseling.Reducing the burden of HIV-2 infection in endemic areas also depends on preventing mother-to-child transmission through interventions including antiretroviral prophylaxis and safe delivery techniques. To sum up, HIV-2 is a different strain of the virus with distinct clinical and epidemiological traits. Even though it is less contagious and advances more slowly than HIV-1, it nevertheless presents serious public health risks, especially in areas where it is endemic.Sustained investigation and monitoring endeavors are indispensable in comprehending the dynamic epidemiology of HIV-2 and formulating efficacious preventive and therapeutic approaches to alleviate its consequences on worldwide health.