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High Prolactin Levels

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High prolactin levels, also known as hyperprolactinemia, arise when the body creates too much prolactin. Prolactin is primarily important for increasing milk supply in mothers following childbirth. However, both men and women can have high prolactin levels, and the causes differ. A prolactinoma, a benign tumor of the pituitary gland, is a common cause of hyperprolactinemia. These noncancerous growths cause an overproduction of prolactin, which disrupts the hormonal balance. Other causes of elevated prolactin levels include some drugs, hypothyroidism, chronic kidney illness, and liver cirrhosis. Elevated prolactin levels might disrupt the menstrual cycle in women. It might cause irregular periods or a complete lack of menstruation (amenorrhea). In men, elevated prolactin levels can cause diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and, in severe cases, infertility. One of the most common symptoms reported by both genders is galactorrhea, which is the spontaneous flow of milk from the breasts that is unrelated to breastfeeding. This syndrome is more common among women, but it can also occur in men. Individuals with hyperprolactinemia may also experience headaches, visual problems, and, in rare cases, pituitary gland compression, which causes nausea and vomiting. Blood tests are often used to diagnose prolactin levels and rule out other possible reasons. Imaging tests, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), can be used to detect abnormalities in the pituitary gland. The appropriate treatment is determined on the underlying cause. To regulate prolactin output in prolactinomas, medicines such as dopamine agonists are routinely administered. These medications help reduce the tumor and alleviate discomfort. In circumstances where drugs are unsuccessful or poorly tolerated, surgery or radiation therapy may be used. Managing excessive prolactin levels necessitates a multidisciplinary strategy that frequently includes coordination between endocrinologists, gynecologists, and neurosurgeons. Regular monitoring and modifications to the treatment plan are essential for maintaining hormonal balance and avoiding problems associated with hyperprolactinemia. Individuals who are suffering symptoms should get medical attention right once to ensure an accurate diagnosis and suitable treatment.