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Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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The most prevalent type of primary liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which originates in the liver's major cells, the hepatocytes. It is frequently associated with underlying liver disease and chronic liver diseases, particularly cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B or C infection, excessive alcohol consumption, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), or other conditions that induce liver damage and scarring. Symptoms of hepatocellular carcinoma may not appear until the disease has advanced sufficiently. Early-stage symptoms may include abdominal pain, a feeling of fullness, weight loss, exhaustion, and a general sense of malaise. As the condition progresses, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), stomach enlargement caused by fluid buildup (ascites), and upper abdominal pain increase. Imaging techniques, such as ultrasonography, CT scans, or MRI scans, are frequently used in conjunction with blood testing to assess liver function and tumor markers. Biopsies can be used to confirm the existence of malignant cells in the liver. Treatment choices for hepatocellular carcinoma are determined by a variety of criteria, including the cancer's stage, the patient's overall health, and the underlying liver condition. Early-stage HCC may be treated surgically, with a liver transplant, or with local therapies such as radiofrequency ablation or microwave ablation, all of which use heat to eradicate cancer cells. Other possibilities include embolization procedures that block the tumor's blood supply, as well as targeted medication therapy such as sorafenib and lenvatinib, which impede cancer cell development. Treatments for advanced instances, where surgery is not an option, are designed to manage symptoms and halt disease development. These could include systemic medicines like chemotherapy or immunotherapy, as well as more targeted therapies that attack cancer cells while causing minimal damage to healthy cells. Reducing risk factors is generally central to hepatocellular carcinoma prevention methods. This includes hepatitis B vaccine, safe sex practices to prevent hepatitis C transmission, alcohol consumption limits, maintaining a healthy weight and diet to prevent fatty liver disease, and regular screening for people at high risk owing to chronic liver disorders. Hepatocellular carcinoma is a difficult diagnosis to treat because it is associated with underlying liver problems and symptoms appear late.