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Glaucoma is a complex eye condition that gradually affects the optic nerve, often as a result of increased intraocular pressure. It is the primary cause of irreversible blindness in the globe. The optic nerve is in charge of relaying visual information from the eye to the brain. Damage causes peripheral vision loss and, if left unchecked, can proceed to total blindness. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most frequent kind of glaucoma. It progresses slowly and painlessly, with few symptoms in the early stages, earning it the nickname "silent thief of sight." When the pressure within the eye, known as intraocular pressure (IOP), rises, the optic nerve is damaged. POAG usually progresses slowly, progressively limiting the field of vision. Angle-closure glaucoma is another type that occurs when the drainage angle of the eye becomes blocked, resulting in an abrupt spike in IOP. Angle-closure glaucoma, unlike POAG, frequently manifests with sudden and severe symptoms such as eye pain, headaches, nausea, and impaired vision. Elevated intraocular pressure, a family history of glaucoma, age (particularly those over 60), specific ethnicities (such as African-Americans and Hispanics), and medical disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, or nearsightedness are all risk factors for glaucoma. Regular eye exams are essential because early identification and treatment of vision loss can help prevent vision loss. Comprehensive eye exams are used to diagnose, including measuring eye pressure, inspecting the optic nerve for damage, assessing peripheral vision, and determining the drainage angle of the eye.To prevent further optic nerve damage, treatment approaches try to lower intraocular pressure.In severe cases, this may entail prescription eye drops, oral drugs, laser therapy, or surgery. Unfortunately, glaucoma-related vision loss is irreversible. Early discovery and treatment, on the other hand, can reduce or stop progression, saving remaining vision. Compliance with treatment plans and regular check-ups with an eye care specialist are critical in glaucoma management. Because glaucoma is often asymptomatic in its early stages, increasing awareness of routine eye exams, particularly among high-risk groups, is critical for detecting and managing the condition early, reducing the risk of irreversible vision loss.