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Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic digestive ailment defined by the backward passage of stomach acid into the esophagus. Recurrent acid reflux can cause irritation and inflammation of the esophageal lining, resulting in a variety of unpleasant symptoms. Heartburn is the most common symptom of GERD. It causes a burning sensation in the chest after eating, especially when lying down or bending over. Another typical symptom is regurgitation, which occurs when stomach contents, including acid, flow back up into the throat or mouth. Some people may have trouble swallowing, a persistent cough, hoarseness, or a lump in their throat, known as globus sensation. GERD can be caused by a variety of factors. The dysfunction of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), a muscular ring that ordinarily acts as a barrier between the esophagus and stomach, is one of the principal causes. When the LES fails to shut properly or weakens, stomach acid flows back into the esophagus. Obesity, smoking, and dietary choices, among other things, can aggravate GERD symptoms. Pregnancy, hiatal hernias, and certain drugs, such as NSAIDs or calcium channel blockers, can also contribute to the problem. GERD is normally managed with lifestyle changes and, in certain circumstances, medicines or surgery. Elevating the head of the bed, avoiding large meals, fatty foods, acidic or spicy foods, and keeping a healthy weight are all examples of lifestyle adjustments. Over-the-counter antacids and prescription drugs such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) can help lower stomach acid production and relieve symptoms. Individuals with severe GERD or consequences such as esophageal inflammation or strictures may benefit from surgical treatments such as fundoplication. Untreated GERD can result in consequences such as esophagitis (esophageal inflammation), esophageal strictures (narrowing of the esophagus), Barrett's esophagus (changes in the lining of the esophagus), and, in certain situations, an increased risk of esophageal cancer. Individuals with GERD must be monitored by a healthcare expert on a regular basis in order to successfully treat symptoms and limit the risk of complications. Changing one's lifestyle, using prescribed medications, and seeking medical counsel if symptoms persist or worsen are all important aspects in treating GERD and maintaining esophageal health.