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Gastrointestinal Bleeding

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When blood is lost from any area of the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, it is known as gastrointestinal bleeding, also known as GI bleeding. This illness can present in a variety of ways, from quiet, concealed, chronic bleeding to sudden, life-threatening haemorrhages. Peptic ulcers, gastritis, esophageal varices, diverticulosis, colorectal polyps, and malignancies are just a few of the many conditions that can result in gastrointestinal bleeding. Depending on the location and intensity of the bleeding, the clinical appearance of GI bleeding can vary greatly. Hematemesis (blood vomiting), melena (black, tarry stools), hematochezia (bright red or maroon stools), weakness, dizziness, exhaustion, and stomach discomfort are among the symptoms that patients may encounter. When GI bleeding is severe, it can result in shock, organ failure, and even death, thus quick medical care and intervention are required. The evaluation of the patient's medical history, a physical exam, and several diagnostic procedures are frequently combined to make the diagnosis of GI bleeding. To see and locate the source of bleeding within the upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts, respectively, gastroscopy and colonoscopy are frequently used. When an endoscopic examination is equivocal, imaging studies including angiography, CT scans, and nuclear medicine scans might be used to identify the bleeding cause. The intensity and underlying cause of GI bleeding will determine how it is treated. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which can make bleeding worse, may need to be stopped in mild cases, and any underlying disorders like gastritis may also need to be treated. To stop the bleeding and stop it from returning, however, more severe cases can necessitate procedures including endoscopic therapy, surgery, or embolisation. To sum up, gastrointestinal bleeding is a complex medical issue that necessitates an all-encompassing strategy for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. It is crucial for people to be aware of its symptoms and risk factors because it can range from unnoticeable, ongoing concerns to emergencies that pose a serious risk to their lives. The morbidity and mortality linked to GI bleeding can be considerably decreased by prompt medical intervention and a proactive approach to maintaining gastrointestinal health.