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Erosive Esophagitis

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Erosive esophagitis is a medical disorder that causes inflammation and destruction to the lining of the esophagus. The esophagus is the muscular tube that transports food and liquids from the mouth into the stomach. Erosive esophagitis occurs when the esophagus's protective lining is inflamed and degraded. The main cause of erosive esophagitis is the reflux of stomach acid into the esophagus, often known as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Normally, a circular band of muscle known as the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) keeps stomach acid from leaking backward into the esophagus. When the LES weakens or relaxes abnormally, stomach acid might rise, causing irritation and inflammation of the esophageal lining. Chronic acid reflux is the most common cause of erosive esophagitis. Other risk factors include obesity, hiatal hernia (a condition in which a portion of the stomach protrudes into the chest cavity via the diaphragm), smoking, pregnancy, certain drugs, and a diet high in acidic or spicy foods. Symptoms of erosive esophagitis can range in severity, but frequently include: Heartburn: A burning sensation in the chest, usually after eating or lying down Difficulty swallowing: Also known as dysphagia, it may seem like food is stuck in your throat. Pain or discomfort occurs in the chest or upper abdomen. Regurgitation is when sour fluid backs up into the mouth. Nausea or vomiting may be accompanied by blood due to esophageal inflammation. If left untreated, erosive esophagitis can cause complications such as esophageal strictures (scarring-induced constriction), Barrett's esophagus (a disorder in which the esophageal lining changes, increasing the risk of cancer), and esophageal ulcers. A patient history, physical examination, and tests such as upper endoscopy, pH monitoring, and imaging studies are usually used to diagnose the extent of damage and rule out other illnesses. Treatment options for erosive esophagitis are designed to ease symptoms, improve esophageal lining healing, and prevent complications. Lifestyle improvements such as dietary changes, weight management, and avoiding triggers are frequently advised. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), which decrease stomach acid production, and antacids may be recommended. In severe situations or when difficulties emerge, surgical intervention may be required to strengthen the LES or repair esophageal damage. Regular follow-ups with healthcare experts are critical for controlling erosive esophagitis and preventing recurrence or development.