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Corynebacterium diphtheriae causes diphtheria, which is a potentially lethal bacterial infection. It primarily affects the mucous membranes of the throat and nose, resulting in a grayish film that can block the airways. Despite its rarity due to extensive immunization, it remains a severe concern in places with poor healthcare access. The bacteria produce a toxin that destroys tissues, resulting in the creation of the distinctive membrane. Symptoms usually develop 2-5 days after infection and include a sore throat, fever, swollen glands in the neck, and difficulty breathing. In severe situations, the poison can spread throughout the bloodstream, damaging the heart, nerves, and kidneys, potentially leading to paralysis or heart failure. Prior to the introduction of immunizations in the 1920s, diphtheria was a leading cause of childhood mortality. Vaccination initiatives have greatly reduced its prevalence in developed countries. The primary immunization series for diphtheria is frequently administered in conjunction with tetanus and pertussis vaccines, known as the DTaP or Tdap vaccine. Booster dosages are suggested every ten years to maintain protection. The diagnosis is inspecting the throat for the characteristic membrane and culture bacteria from a throat sample. Antibiotics are often used to kill the germs, and antitoxin to neutralize the toxin. Prompt treatment is critical to avoiding problems. Vaccination remains the most effective technique for preventing diphtheria. Inadequate vaccination coverage can cause epidemics, especially in communities with low immunization rates. Maintaining high vaccination coverage not only protects individuals, but also helps to build herd immunity, which reduces disease spread within the population. While diphtheria has become uncommon in many parts of the world, it is critical to stay cautious due to its potential severity. Continued efforts in vaccine education, healthcare access, and surveillance are critical to preventing a comeback. Global activities to improve vaccination availability and accessibility in underprivileged areas are critical to the continued fight against diphtheria and other vaccine-preventable illnesses, protecting public health worldwide.