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Diabetic Retinopathy

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Diabetic retinopathy is a significant diabetic condition that affects the eyes, namely the retina. The retina is the rear of the eye tissue that detects light and sends images to the brain. Diabetes-related elevated blood sugar levels can damage the tiny blood vessels within the retina, resulting in diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy is classified into two types: non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). NPDR is a pre-cancerous condition in which small blood vessels in the retina leak or get occluded. This can induce retinal swelling, resulting in hazy vision or even impairing central vision if the macula, the central section of the retina, is affected. PDR is a more severe form of diabetic retinopathy. As the disorder worsens, new, weak blood vessels appear on the retina's surface.These new blood vessels have a high risk of bleeding into the vitreous, the gel-like fluid that fills the center of the eye.Floaters, patches, or cloudiness in vision can be caused by bleeding. In severe situations, scar tissue may grow, resulting in retinal detachment and possibly irreversible vision loss. Diabetes duration, poorly managed blood sugar levels, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and pregnancy are all risk factors for diabetic retinopathy. However, not everyone with diabetes develops diabetic retinopathy, and the risk can be reduced by regulating blood sugar, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels, as well as living a healthy lifestyle. Individuals with diabetes should have regular eye exams since early detection and intervention are critical for treating diabetic retinopathy. Treatment options vary depending on the stage of the problem and can involve laser therapy to seal leaking blood vessels, pharmaceutical injections into the eye to reduce inflammation or block the formation of aberrant blood vessels, or surgery to remove blood or scar tissue from the eye in severe cases. Prevention and early detection are critical in the management of diabetic retinopathy and lowering the risk of vision loss. To protect their visual health, diabetics should follow their recommended treatment programs, monitor their blood sugar levels on a regular basis, and establish a working connection with their healthcare team.