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Demethylation Agents

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By modifying DNA methylation patterns, demethylation agents play a critical role in the study of epigenetics. DNA methylation is a chemical process that can be reversed in which a methyl group (CH3) is added to the DNA's cytosine base, usually at CpG sites. Cancer and neurodevelopmental abnormalities are two diseases that can be caused by abnormal DNA methylation. Demethylation treatments function by removing these methyl tags, which returns gene expression profiles to normal. 5-Azacytidine is one of the most well-known demethylation substances. This substance forms covalent compounds with DNA methyltransferases by incorporating into DNA during replication. It is a nucleoside analog. This prevents them from adding methyl groups, which leads to DNA demethylation. Specifically used to treat acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes, 5-azacytidine is a component of cancer therapy. The demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, also referred to as decitabine, is another. It is used to treat myelodysplastic syndromes and has a similar mechanism of action to 5-azacytidine. Decitabine and 5-azacytidine are both regarded as hypomethylating medicines. DNA methyltransferase inhibitors are one type of targeted demethylation drug that has been made possible by epigenetic research. These compounds stop particular DNA methyltransferases from adding methyl groups to DNA by specifically inhibiting them. They are being investigated as potential treatments for illnesses including Rett syndrome and fragile X syndrome that are linked to aberrant DNA methylation. Natural substances with demethylation characteristics include curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which are found in turmeric and green tea, respectively. The ability of these dietary elements to alter epigenetic markers in a range of medical diseases has been studied. In conclusion, demethylation agents are crucial tools in the study of epigenetics and have promise uses in the treatment of illnesses characterized by aberrant DNA methylation patterns. Their capacity to alter epigenetic markers opens up new treatment possibilities and contributes to our understanding of the function of DNA methylation in health and disease. To realize the full potential of these compounds in precision medicine, researchers are still investigating and modifying them.