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Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

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In patients with severe coronary artery disease (CAD), coronary artery bypass surgery, sometimes referred to as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), is a frequent surgical treatment performed to increase blood flow to the heart muscle. This illness develops when plaque accumulates in the blood arteries that feed the heart oxygen-rich blood, narrowing or obstructing them. During CABG, a healthy blood vessel—typically taken from the arm, leg, or chest—is used by the surgeon to construct a new conduit for blood to travel to the heart. After being attached to the clogged coronary artery, this new vessel—known as a graft—allows blood to reach the heart muscle unhindered. Usually carried out under general anesthesia, the surgery entails the following steps: Preparation: The patient is given anesthetic and has their vital signs monitored in order to get them ready for surgery. Harvesting the Graft: The surgeon chooses an appropriate blood vessel, usually a leg vein or the internal mammary artery from the chest. The selected vessel is extracted with great care to maintain its integrity. Opening the Chest: To get to the heart, a little incision is made in the chest. A sternotomy, or vertical incision down the middle of the chest, is sometimes done in order to improve access to the heart. Connecting the Graft: After that, the surgeon fastens the graft's one end to the aorta, the main artery that leaves the heart, and its other end to the coronary artery that is still open after the blockage. By creating a bypass or detour, this enables blood to circumvent the blockage and reach the heart muscle. Verifying Blood Flow: The surgeon verifies blood flow to make sure the heart is getting enough oxygenated blood after the grafts are implanted. Closing the Chest: Sutures or staples are used to close the chest incision if the grafts are operating as intended. In order to temporarily drain extra fluid from the chest cavity, a drainage tube may be inserted. After CABG, the patient usually needs to stay in the hospital for a few days to a week while being closely watched. To aid in healing and lower the chance of developing new cardiac issues, patients must adhere to a thorough rehabilitation program that includes medication, dietary adjustments, and cardiac rehabilitation exercises after being released from the hospital. Treatment for severe CAD with CABG is very effective; it reduces the risk of a heart attack and improves symptoms like angina (chest pain) and shortness of breath. But like with any operation, there are dangers involved, including bleeding, infection, and anesthesia-related problems. It is typically advised in cases where other approaches, such medication or a change in lifestyle, have failed to control the symptoms of CAD.