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Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

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The surgical treatment known as a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), or bypass surgery, is performed to treat coronary artery disease (CAD). The accumulation of plaque causes the blood arteries that provide oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle to narrow or obstruct, which results in CAD. Breathlessness, chest pain (angina), and in extreme situations, heart attacks, may result from this. Using healthy blood veins taken from other parts of the body—typically the arm, leg, or chest wall—a surgeon constructs new channels for blood to flow to the heart muscle during CABG. After that, these blood veins are joined to the coronary arteries, avoiding the parts that are constricted or occluded. This improves the blood supply to the cardiac muscle and lessens symptoms by allowing blood to flow freely to it. Under general anesthesia, the procedure usually lasts many hours. There are various CABG technique types, such as: Traditional CABG: To reach the heart, a big incision must be made in the chest. While the surgeon operates on the clogged arteries, the heart is momentarily stopped and its pumping action is taken over by a heart-lung bypass system. Minimally Invasive CABG: Uses sophisticated tools and cameras to execute the procedure with smaller incisions. This strategy might lead to less scarring and a speedier recovery period. Off-Pump CABG: This procedure is comparable to regular CABG in that the patient's heart is left intact throughout. Without the assistance of a heart-lung bypass machine, this is accomplished. Like any major surgery, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) includes some risk. Although severe problems are uncommon, these risks include infection, hemorrhage, stroke, heart attack, and even death. However, for many individuals with significant coronary artery disease, the advantages of CABG frequently exceed the dangers. Patients usually stay in the hospital for a few days for monitoring and recuperation following CABG. They will be given drugs to control blood pressure, avoid infection, and manage discomfort during this period. Cardiac rehabilitation is a crucial component of recovery that enhances long-term results. It includes exercise instruction and teaching on heart-healthy lifestyle modifications. In summary, people with severe coronary artery disease may benefit from CABG surgery, which may save their lives. It relieves symptoms, raises quality of life, and helps the heart muscle receive blood flow again. To choose their course of treatment wisely, patients should, however, talk with their medical team about the advantages and disadvantages of CABG.