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Cmv Retinitis

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The retina is the light-sensitive tissue located in the back of the eye. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is a dangerous viral infection of this tissue. The cytomegalovirus, which belongs to the herpesvirus family, is the cause of it. People with compromised immune systems, such as those living with HIV/AIDS, receiving organ transplants, or receiving immunosuppressive therapy, are the main populations affected by CMV retinitis. Fluids from the body, including blood, saliva, urine, and breast milk, can spread the virus. After entering the body, the virus might lie dormant for years before resurfacing if the immune system is weakened. Symptoms of CMV retinitis usually include blurred vision, floaters (spots or lines in the field of vision), and, if untreated, ultimate blindness. If left untreated, it frequently begins in one eye and can eventually spread to both. If the infection is not treated quickly, it may harm the retina and result in retinal detachment and irreversible visual loss. An ophthalmologist will often perform a thorough eye examination, which will include a dilated fundus examination to visualize the retina, in order to diagnose CMV retinitis. To determine the degree of retinal damage, further tests like fluorescein angiography or optical coherence tomography (OCT) may be carried out. Usually, antiviral drugs like ganciclovir, valganciclovir, or foscarnet are used to treat CMV retinitis. These drugs function by stopping the virus from replicating, hence stopping more retinal damage. In extreme circumstances, intravitreal injections of antiviral medications straight into the eye could be required to get the right amount of medication in the retina. Antiviral medication can slow the progression of CMV retinitis, but long-term care is frequently necessary because the condition is often lifelong. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment and identify any indications of problems or disease progression, routine monitoring by an ophthalmologist is crucial. To sum up, CMV retinitis is a potentially blinding illness that mainly affects people with compromised immune systems. Prompt diagnosis and antiviral medication beginning are essential to avert irreparable visual loss. To optimize visual results for those affected by this disorder, close teamwork between ophthalmologists and other healthcare providers is necessary for the overall management of the condition.